La co-culture comme solution pour limiter le transfert de résidus de pesticides chez les cucurbitacées

Co-culture as a solution to limit organochlorine pesticides transfer from contaminated soil to cucurbits

Context and literature review
Nowadays, the contamination of agricultural soils with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is frequently detected world-wide. Even though the use of OCPs is either banished or limited since decades, their persistence is a present and continuous challenge for farmers and farmland administrator and regulators (Gavrilescu, 2005; Jorgenson, 2001; Morillo and Villaverde, 2017; Widenfalk, 2002). Due to their environmental persistence and transfer into the food chain, the OCPs are a high hazard for the global environment and endanger the human health (Lallas, 2001; Law, 1993). Finding strategies for either the soil decontamination or the decrease of contaminant bioavailability, including Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) of agricultural soils, is thus a main concern for farmers. Indeed, depending on species and cultivars, the impregnation of several edible plant parts by OCPs and other POPs can occur. Consequently, some plant products can contain pesticide concentrations above regulatory Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) (Donnarumma et al., 2009; Hashimoto, 2005; Mattina et al., 2004, 2000, 1999; Otani et al., 2007). The detection of Dieldrin and Chlordanes in Cucurbitaceae produced in a market gardening area around Bordeaux led to precautionary measures penalizing the sale of crops and farm viability.
Previous experiments demonstrated that OCP transfer differs between Cucurbitaceae species and cultivars. Co-cultivation can be a way to better understand the mechanisms involved in OCP uptake and distribution in Cucurbitaceae parts by highlighting the possible contribution of root exudates on OCP bioavailability. Moreover, co-cultivation of a cucurbitaceae and non-cucurbitaceae species able to dissipate OCPs could be an interesting way to alleviate OCP transfer into the food chain.
Internship proposal:
The internship will focus on the following items:
1. The co-cultivation of OCP accumulator and non-accumulator cucurbit species and cultivars
2. The co-cultivation of an accumulating cucurbit cultivar with a non-cucurbit species presenting OCPs accumulation and/or dissipation ability.
3. The quantification of OCP concentrations in the different plant parts.
4. The evaluation of accumulation capacity of the co-cultivated plant species.
Main Tasks to be Carried Out:
• Literature review,
• plant cultivation
• Soil and plant sampling,
• OCP analyses,
• Data treatment and interpretation. Report drafting
Internship duration: 6 months
Required skills:
To carry out this research work, the candidates need to have the following skills:
• Education in Plant or Environmental sciences, Analytical chemistry of organic compounds,
• Rigor and autonomy,
• Interest for plant cultivation and fieldwork,
• Driving license, fluency in English language and statistical analysis
Application deadline: 31/01/2022
Internship remuneration: ≈ 500-600€/month
Internship supervision and contact:
Grégory Cohen (EA G&E): [email protected]

References:
Donnarumma, L., Pompi, V., Faraci, A., Conte, E., 2009. J. Environ. Sci. Heal. – Part B Pestic. Food Contam. Agric. Wastes 44, 449‑454. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601230902935113.
Gavrilescu, M., 2005. Eng. Life Sci. 5, 497‑526. https://doi.org/10.1002/elsc.200520098.
Hashimoto, Y., 2005. J. Pestic. Sci. 30, 397‑402. https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.30.397.
Jorgenson, J.L., 2001. Environ. Health Perspect. 109, 113‑139. https://doi.org/10.2307/3434852.
Lallas, P.L., 2001. Am. J. Int. Law 95, 692‑708.
Law, E.A., 1993.
Mattina, M.I., Eitzer, B.D., Iannucci-Berger, W., Lee, W.Y., White, J.C., 2004. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23, 2756‑2762. https://doi.org/10.1897/03-570.
Mattina, M.J.I., Iannucci-Berger, W., Dykas, L., 2000. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 1909‑1915. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990566a.
Mattina, M.J.I., Iannucci-Berger, W., Dykas, L., Pardus, J., 1999. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 2425‑2431. https://doi.org/10.1021/es990012o.
Morillo, E., Villaverde, J., 2017. Sci. Total Environ. 586, 576‑597. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.020.
Otani, T., Seike, N., Sakata, Y., 2007. Soil Sci. plant Nutr. 53, 86‑94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00102.x.
Widenfalk, A., 2002. Sveriges lantbruksuniv.

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