La greffe comme solution pour limiter le transfert de pesticides organochlorés de sols contaminés vers des cucurbitacées

Grafting as a solution to limit organochlorine pesticide transfer from contaminated soils into cucurbits

Context and literature review
Nowadays, contamination of agricultural soils with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is frequently detected world-wide. Even though the use of OCPs is banished or limited since decades, their persistence is a present and continuous challenge for farmers and farmland administrator and regulators (Gavrilescu, 2005; Jorgenson, 2001; Morillo and Villaverde, 2017; Widenfalk, 2002). Due to their environmental persistence and transfer into the food chain, the OCPs are a high hazard for the global environment and endanger the human health (Lallas, 2001; Law, 1993). Finding strategies for the soil decontamination or the decrease of contaminant bioavailability, including Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) of agricultural soils is thus a main concern for farmers. Indeed, depending on species and cultivars, the impregnation of several edible plant parts by these compounds (OCPs and other POPs) can occur. Consequently, some plant products can contain pesticide concentrations above regulatory Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) (Donnarumma et al., 2009; Hashimoto, 2005; Mattina et al., 2004, 2000, 1999; Otani et al., 2007). The detection of two of these compounds (i.e. Dieldrin and Chlordanes) in Cucurbitaceae produced in a market gardening area around Bordeaux led to precautionary measures penalizing the sale of crops and farm viability.
Previous experiments demonstrated that OCP transfer depends on Cucurbitaceae species and varieties. Thus, it is crucial to verify if the fruit contamination level can be lowered by grafting accumulator cultivars on non-accumulator ones, accounting for intraspecific and interspecific biodiversity.

Internship proposal:
The internship will focus on the following items:
1. The grafting of accumulator cucurbits on non-accumulator cultivars.
2. The culture of the grafted and control plants in soil contaminated by Dieldrin.
3. The quantification of the fruit contamination.
4. The evaluation of accumulation capacity of the grafted plants.
5. The characterisation of the contaminant distribution in the grafted plant parts.

Main Tasks to be Carried Out:
• Literature review,
• Plant cultivation, Cucurbit grafting,
• Soil and plant sampling,
• OCP analyses,
• Data treatment and interpretation, drafting of report

Internship duration: 6 months

Required skills:
To carry out this research work, the candidates need to have the following skills:
• Education in Plant or Environmental sciences, Analytical chemistry of organic compounds,
• Rigor,
• Autonomy,
• Interest for plant cultivation and fieldwork,
• Driving license, fluency in statistical analysis

Application deadline: 31/01/2022
Internship remuneration: ≈ 500-600 €/month
Internship supervision and contact:
Grégory Cohen (EA G&E): [email protected]

References:
Donnarumma, L., Pompi, V., Faraci, A., Conte, E., 2009. J. Environ. Sci. Heal. – Part B Pestic. Food Contam. Agric. Wastes 44, 449‑454. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601230902935113.
Gavrilescu, M., 2005. Eng. Life Sci. 5, 497‑526. https://doi.org/10.1002/elsc.200520098.
Hashimoto, Y., 2005. J. Pestic. Sci. 30, 397‑402. https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.30.397.
Jorgenson, J.L., 2001. Environ. Health Perspect. 109, 113‑139. https://doi.org/10.2307/3434852.
Lallas, P.L., 2001. Am. J. Int. Law 95, 692‑708.
Law, E.A., 1993.
Mattina, M.I., Eitzer, B.D., Iannucci-Berger, W., Lee, W.Y., White, J.C., 2004. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23, 2756‑2762. https://doi.org/10.1897/03-570.
Mattina, M.J.I., Iannucci-Berger, W., Dykas, L., 2000. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 1909‑1915. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990566a.
Mattina, M.J.I., Iannucci-Berger, W., Dykas, L., Pardus, J., 1999. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 2425‑2431. https://doi.org/10.1021/es990012o.
Morillo, E., Villaverde, J., 2017. Sci. Total Environ. 586, 576‑597. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.020.
Otani, T., Seike, N., Sakata, Y., 2007. Soil Sci. plant Nutr. 53, 86‑94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00102.x.
Widenfalk, A., 2002. Sveriges lantbruksuniv.

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